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Firstly, about the infusion products (From the Internet)

1. Definition of infusion

Short for infusion, intravenous infusion is the large volume injection (unless otherwise specified, usually not less than 100ml) for intravenous use, which is usually packaged in glass bottles, plastic bottles or soft bags and does not contain any antibacterial agents. When in use, adjust the dripping speed by infusion set and let the infusion into the vein steadily so that it can supplement the body fluids, electrolytes and other nutrients.

2. The principle of infusion

According to the physical principle of hydrostatic pressure, the solution can be administered into the body through the vein. When the infusion bottle (bag) is connected to the infusion set, the solution may flow into the rubber hose and form the water column because of the atmospheric pressure. As soon as the pressure of water column is greater than venous pressure, the solution in bottle (bag) will flow into the vein smoothly.

3. Origin of infusion

William Harvey was discovered the circulation of blood in the 17th century. And the British scientist Sir Christopher Wren tried to inject a solution into the vein with pig bladder and goose quill later on, which meant the generation of fluid therapy. In 1831, the British surgeon Thomas Latta used the mixture of 0.5% saline and 0.2% sodium carbonate solution to treat cholera cases, which marked the beginning of electrolyte infusion. Later, the pediatrician Marriott began to treat the infantile diarrhea cases by using electrolyte infusion, which made the mortality of infantile diarrhea decrease from 90% to 10%. Therefore, fluid therapy is of great significance to the world.

4. The purpose of the infusion

① Supplement blood volume, improve microcirculation and maintain blood pressure. It is often used to treat burns, bleeding and shock, etc.

② Supplement water and electrolytes, which can regulate or maintain acid-base balance. It is often used in dehydration caused by various reasons, fasting and treatment after surgery. 

③ To reach the goal of detoxication, controlling the infection, diuresis and treating the disease by injecting drugs. It is often used in intoxication and all kinds of infections.

④ Supplement nutrition, maintain calorie balance, promote tissue repair and regain positive nitrogen balance. It is often used in chronic wasting disease and fasting, etc.

⑤ Inject the dehydrating agent to increase the osmotic pressure of blood, which can help to prevent or relieve encephaledema, decrease ICP, and improve the function of central nervous system. Furthermore, it can help to reclaim the water of tissue into veins and excrete them via kidneys as of result of hypertonicity, which can achieve the goal of diuresis and detumescence.

5. Common infusion products

① 5-10% Glucose Injection: supply water and energy.
② 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, 5% Glucose Sodium Chloride Injection and Compound Sodium Chloride Injection, etc.: supply water and electrolytes. 
③ 5% Sodium Bicarbonate Injection, 11.2% Sodium Lactate Injection: regulate acid-base balance. 
④ Various kinds of Dextran Injection and Hetastarch, etc.: increase the osmotic pressure of blood and circulatory blood volume.
⑤ Mannitol, sorbitol solution and 50% Glucose Injection, etc.: help for diuresis and dehydration. 
⑥ Others (for special treatment)
   E.g. Concentrated Albumin Injection: maintain colloid osmotic pressure and relieve tissue edema; 
          Protein Hydrolysate Injection: supply proteins.

6. Classification of infusion products

① Classification by use
Supply water and electrolytes, such as Sodium Chloride Injection.
Supply energy and nutrition, such as Glucose Injection, Amino Acid Injection and Fat Emulsion Injection, etc.
Be used as solubilizing agent.
Be used in treatments, such as antibiotics.
② Classification by container
Glass bottle: fragile, easy to fall off foreign matters, poor sealing performance; open infusion system.
Plastic bottle: crushproof, not shed, not dissolve out, good sealing performance; open infusion system.
Soft bag (single bag, multi-bag): crushproof, not shed, not dissolve out, good sealing performance; closed infusion system.
 
Secondly, about the nutrition infusion products (From the Internet)

The main purpose of nutrition infusion is to supply essential nutrients such as carbohydrates (sugars), fats, amino acids, vitamins and trace elements via veins for the patients who cannot eat or suffer from hypermetabolism.

Nutrition infusion mainly includes 4 types: glucose infusion (injection), fat emulsion injection, amino acid injection and vitamin & trace element infusion. 

 

 

 

The features of PP Caps

 

                           ——from the instruction of opening (see the scanned copy)
 

Firstly, easy to open

The PP Cap is designed into ring-pull, so it is easy to open and the open time becomes shorter as well.

Secondly, fully ensure the quality of drugs

The product is sealed with PP Cap before sterilization, so it can ensure an aseptic condition inside the bottle after sterilization, which makes it safer and more reliable when in use.

Thirdly, easy to puncture

The rubber stopper inside the PP Cap is thin, so it is easier to puncture by needle. 

Fourthly, the sealing performance of rubber stopper is better

The composition and shape of the rubber stopper inside our PP Cap are different from that of others, so our rubber stopper has a better sealing performance.

 

 

Notes for puncture

                             ——from the instruction of puncture (see the scanned copy)
1.Puncture the designated location of rubber stopper.
Thickness of each part in the rubber stopper is different. The designated puncture location is thin while other parts are thick. So if insert beyond the designated location, the number of particulate matter will increase.
 
2.The mark “In” on the rubber stopper means the insert location of dosing, while “Out” means the insert location of infusion.
 
3.Make the needle insert vertically into the location “In” or “Out” of rubber stopper. 
 
4.In order to avoid the particulate matter when puncture, it would be better to use side-opening resin needle. 

 

 

 
The usage of soft bag product

 

 

Compound Amino Acid Injection (18AA-)


                                                            ——from product instruction

[Drug Name] 

Generic Name: Compound Amino Acid Injection (18AA-Ⅱ) 

Pinyin(Chinese): Fufang Anjisuan Zhusheye (18AA-Ⅱ) 

[Character] This product is a kind of colorless or yellowish clear liquid. 

[Indications] 

This product can be administered i.v. to the patients that cannot be offered nutritional feeding orally or intestinally and those whose nutrition cannot satisfy the needs, so as to fulfill the body internal protein biosynthesis.

[Specification] 8.5%:   (1) 250ml: 21.25g (total amino acids)  (2) 500ml: 42.5g (total amino acids) 

                          11.4%:  (1) 250ml: 28.5g (total amino acids)    (2) 500ml: 57g (total amino acids) 

[Notes] 

1. Those with hepatic and renal dysfunction shall use the drug with caution.

2. Check the liquid carefully before use, and in case of any damage to the package, leakage, liquid color change, mildew, sediment, deterioration or other abnormalities, the drug can not be used. 

3. The liquid unused at one time after being unsealed shall be discarded without reuse. 

4. Pay attention to the following points with respect to this product:

(1) Do not unseal the outer wrap until immediately before use (OOTB).

(2) Before opening the outside bag, please confirm the color of the indicator for oxygen. Don’t use the product if the color of the indicator changes to be purple to blue, because it means the product has been oxidized.

(3) In case of leakage or liquid abnormality, the drug shall not be used.

[Pharmacology and toxicology]

The drug can provide complete and balanced 18 essential and non-essential amino acids, including tyrosine and cystine, so as to satisfy the needs of the human body to synthesize proteins and to improve the nitrogen balance. 

[Storage] Sealed, kept away from light (at 5~25℃). 

[Package] Packed in five-layer co-extruding film transfusion bag (material: polyethylene). 250ml/bag, 500ml/bag. 

[Approval No.] 8.5%: (1) 250ml: 21.25g (total amino acids):国药准字H20065016 

                                        (2) 500ml: 42.5g (total amino acids): 国药准字H20065017 

                           11.4%: (1) 250ml: 28.5g (total amino acids): 国药准字H20064900 

                                        (2) 500ml: 57g (total amino acids): 国药准字H20064901

 


 

Fat Emulsion Injection (C14 ~ 24)

——from product instruction 

[Drug Name] 

Generic Name: Fat Emulsion Injection (C14 ~ 24) 

Pinyin (Chinese): Zhifangru Zhusheye (C14 ~ 24)

[Character] This product is white emulsion. 

[Indications]Used as an energy source. This product is intravenous nutrition, provides energy and essential fatty acid to human body.

[Specification] (1) 500ml: 50g (soybean oil): 6g (ovolecithin) 

                           (2) 250ml: 50g (soybean oil): 3g (ovolecithin) 

[Notes] 

1. Caution should be paid in the patients with decreased fat metabolism such as hepatic and renal dysfunction, diabetic ketoacidosis, pancreatitis, hypothyroidism (with hyperlipidemia) and sepsis. When this product is used in these patients, serum triglyceride concentration should be monitored carefully. Fat elimination test must be performed when it is used for more than a week.

2. Caution should be paid in those allergic to soybean protein; Hypersensitivity experiment must be done before administration.

3. Caution should be paid in newborns and preterm infants with hyperbilirubinemia or suspected pulmonary hypertension.

4. Platelet counting, liver function and serum triglyceride level must be monitored after long term use in newborns especially preterm infants.

5. Other laboratory testing parameters (such as bilirubin, LDH, oxygen saturation and hemoglobin) would be interfered if the blood samples were drawn before this product is eliminated thoroughly from blood. In most patients, this product is eliminated thoroughly 5-6 hours after infusion.

6. Fat Elimination Test must be carried out in those who have been administrated for more than one week. The detailed instruction is: Before the beginning of infusion, a blood sample is drawn. The blood sample is centrifuged. If the plasma is then milky, the planned infusion is postponed (this method do not applicable in those with hyperlipidemia). If decreased fat elimination capacity is found, it is best to check serum triglyceride. For infants and children, the most reliable method in monitoring fat elimination capacity is to check serum triglyceride regularly.

7. Make sure to check the liquid medicine carefully before using. Do not use if the package breaks, leaks or the liquid changes color, moulds, deposits, deteriorates, etc.

8. The remaining contents of a partly used bag must be discarded immediately and should not be stored for later use. 

9. Using the product contains in five-layer co-extruding film transfusion bag should pay attention to 

(1) Do not open the outside bag arbitrarily before using, otherwise use product as soon as possible (OOTB).

(2) Before opening the outside bag, please confirm the color of the indicator for oxygen. Don’t use the product if the color of the indicator changes to be purple to blue, because it means the product has been oxidized.

(3) Do not use if there’s water drop in the outside bag or the liquid is exceptional.

[Pharmacology and toxicology] 

Fatty acid is the major energy source and fatty acid oxidation is the important energy source for human body. With enough oxygen supply, fatty acid can be resolved into CO2 and H2O in human body and release a lot of energy in the form of ATP. Except brain tissue, most tissues can oxygenate fatty acid, especially liver and muscle. Some unsaturated fatty acid cannot be synthesized within human body and need to be ingested from vegetable oil. They are the essential nutrients for human body, so we call them essential fatty acids. They are also the precursors for physiological active substances such as prostaglandins, thromboxanes and leukotrienes, etc.

Phospholipid forms the basic frame for the lipid bilayer of cell biomembrane (cell membrane, nuclear membrane, mitochondrial membrane). It is also the major component for all kinds of lipoproteins and participates in the transportation of lipid and cholesterol.

Phospholipids are distributed widely in nature. It is abundant in seeds such as soybean among plant and is rich in nervous tissues of animal.

This product is Fat Emulsion Injection (C14 ~ 24) in a sterilized milky form, which contains soybean oil for injection and ovolecithin for injection. And 60% of fatty acid is essential fatty acids.

This product is a kind of intravenous nutrition, which can provide energy and essential fatty acids for human body, and also can prevent and treat essential fatty acid deficiency.

[Storage] Below 25℃, do not freeze. 

[Packaging] Packed in five-layer co-extruding film transfusion bag (material: polyethylene).

                      (1) 10%: 500ml / bag (2) 20%: 250ml / bag 

[Approval No.] (1) 500ml: 50g (soybean oil): 6g (ovolecithin) 国药准字H20054368

                           (2) 250ml: 50g (soybean oil): 3g (ovolecithin) 国药准字H20054369

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